wet fgd stoichiometric ratio

The Wet vs. Dry Question for Scrubbers - ALDEN

reagent stoichiometric ratio •Depends on unit capacity factor •Relative cost of lime vs. limestone •Ratio of lime/ LS cost per ton has ... unit on the same site has a wet scrubber •Plant B would get a wet FGD system •Would replicate the existing wet scrubber to treat combined flue gas from both units.

IPM Model – Revisions to Cost and Performance for ...

IPM Model – Revisions to Cost and Performance for Technologies Wet FGD Cost Development Methodology FINAL August 2010 Project 12301-007 Perrin Quarles Associates, Inc. Prepared by ... efficiency of 98% and a calcium-to-sulfur stoichiometric ratio of 1.03. The

IPM Model Updates to Cost and Performance for ...

IPM Model – Updates to Cost and Performance for Technologies Wet FGD Cost Development Methodology Final March 2013 Project 12847-002 Systems Research and Applications Corporation Prepared by 55 East Monroe Street • Chicago, IL 60603 USA • 312-269-2000

Enhancing the recovery of gypsum in limestone-based wet ...

Today, wet FGD represent the most commonly adopted system worldwide and it is well established and commercially proven technology (Córdoba, 2015). Among the reasons for the success of the wet FGD system, there is the possibility of recovering a new product to be allocated on the market namely gypsum (He and Lee, 2014).

A company that researches ways to safeguard the natural ...

Flue Gas Desulphurization Process Method to remove SO2 from emitted gas after combustion . ... –Stoichiometric ratio ... •Retrofit of Wet Limestone-Gypsum FGD System for High Sulfur Orimulsion fuel (≈3%) •High SOx Removal Efficiency (≥99%) with DBA additive injection system ...


Stoichiometric air means the minimum air in stoichiometric mixture. The stoichiometric air/fuel ratio (AFR) can be calculated from the reaction equation (g/g). For gas AFR is usually determined in m3/m 3. The actual combustion air depends also on the assumed air excess (equivalence ratio or stoichiometric ratio).

Flue-gas desulfurization - Wikipedia

Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is a set of technologies used to remove sulfur dioxide (SO 2) from exhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants, and from the emissions of other sulfur oxide emitting processes (e.g trash incineration

Michael A. Walsh, P.E. VP Engineering - WPCA

Michael A. Walsh, P.E. VP Engineering WET FGD TYPES ... pH is related to reagent stoichiometry – the number of mols ... L/G ratio can be changed by altering either recycle flow rate or flue gas flow rate Liquid flow is typically varied by changing the number of

Model of the Wet Limestone Flue Gas Desulfurization ...

A detailed process model of the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system has been presented. This model can be used to calculate indispensable parameters for estimating costs and next to minimize capital and operating costs. The process model describes most important stage of SO2 removal running in an absorber and a holding tank. It includes absorption of sulfur dioxide, oxidation of SO3 ...

Economics of Lime and Limestone for Control of Sulfur …

of both wet and dry FGD processes. Design removal efficiency of 98% was chosen for wet FGD evaluation, and 93 to 95% removal was chosen for dry FGD depending on process and coal type. For new coal-fired plants operating on high-sulfur coal with wet FGD, a 98% removal design may be required to meet Best Available Control Technology emission limits.

Technical Description of Parameters Influencing the pH ...

processes of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies based on limestone sorbent slurry, wet scrubbing desulfu-rization is a method of choice in Poland for flue gas treatment in energy production facilities, including power plants and industrial systems. The efficiency of FGD using the above method depends on several techno-

Flue Gas Desulfurization by Limestone and Hydrated Lime ...

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes are usually categorized as wet and dry or semi-dry systems. In wet FGD processes flue gas is contacted with a slurry consisting of a sorbent in an aqueous medium, such that the flue gas is cooled to the adiabatic saturation temperature. Whereas, dry and semi-dry FGD processes involve injection of a

GraniLAB ™, wet system for flue gas treatment

GraniLAB™ is a wet process involving gas scrubbing which leads to the saturation temperature and to the absorption of acid gases. LAB has developed a unique range of unmatched wet cleaning systems of modular design including: LAB-G spray nozzles for spray towers

Dry FGD Design Calculator • FGKH

Dry FGD Design Calculator: Bicarbonate Removal Efficiencies. A stoichiometric requirement of bicarbonate for flue gas desulfurization will be calculated and then a final flowrate will be given, which includes an appropriate stoichiometric excess.

Removal of SO2 in Semiâ Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization ...

The wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process is a general technique in advanced countries, but it is very expensive and consumes large amounts of water. The semi-dry FGD process, represented by spray dry scrubbers, draws worldwide interest due to the unnecessary treatment of water (Kaplan and Felsvang, 1980; Deuster et al., 1994; Neathery, 1996).

Stoichiometric ratios method of calculations - ChemBuddy

Stoichiometric calculations based on ratio and proportions are very intuitive, but for some reasons not taught in the US. The general idea was already signaled in the stoichiometric calculations section - ratio of amounts of reagents is always the same and is described by the balanced reaction equation.

Flue Gas Desulfurization (Acid Gas Removal) Systems

Flue Gas Desulfurization (Acid Gas Removal) Systems Goal To familiarize you with the operation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems that use a scrubbing liquid to absorb SO2 present in the exhaust gas stream. Objectives At the end of this lesson, you will be able to do the following: 1.

Low water FGD technologies - United States Energy ...

1 Introduction Low water FGD technologies 5 When coal is combusted in a power plant boiler, the sulphur in the fuel combines with oxygen to form sulphur dioxide (SO 2) and small amounts of sulphur trioxide (SO 3).Further amounts of SO 3are generated in the selective catalytic reactor, which …

Limestone FGD Scrubbers: User's Handbook - EPA

Stoichiometric Ratio and pH Stoichiometric ratio (SR) is defined as the ratio of the actual amount of S02 absorbing reagent, usually calcium carbonate (CaC03), in the lime- stone fed to the scrubber to the theoretical amount required to neutralize the S02 and other acidic species absorbed from the flue gas.

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of the OSCAR Process for High ...

wet scrubbing continues to dominate FGD installations. In this process, an aqueous slurry of calcium-based sorbents (calcium hydroxide/carbonate) reacts with SO2, producing calcium sulfite. Sulfite is then converted to sulfate through a subsequent forced oxidation step. Another method of the FGD technology is the furnace sorbent injection (FSI).

Wet Scrubbers for gaseous control - review draft

Review DRAFT CAM TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT B.5 WET SCRUBBERS FOR VOC CONTROL B-38 4/02 B.5 WET SCRUBBERS FOR GASEOUS CONTROL1,2,9,15 B.5.1 Background Wet scrubbers use a liquid to remove pollutants from an exhaust stream.

Wet Lime | Carmeuse

Wet lime systems are well established in some industries such as Power Generation & Waste to Energy. This process is based on the large degree of contact between the circulating slurry and the flue gases. This slurry circulates in the absorber tower (or scrubber) to neutralize the condensed flue gas pollutant. The pH of the slurry is a key parameter to be monitored as it drives the entire system.

Mole Ratios - Chemistry | Socratic

Mole ratios are used as conversion factors between products and reactants in stoichiometry calculations.. For example, in the reaction . 2H₂(g) + O₂(g) → 2H₂O(g) The mole ratio between O₂ and H₂O is #(1 mol O₂)/(2 mol H₂O)#.. The mole ratio between H₂ and H₂O is #(2 mol H₂)/(2 mol H₂O)#.. Example: How many moles of O₂ are required to form 5.00 moles of H₂O?

Wet FGD Chemistry and Performance Factors - WPCA

Causes of Scaling in FGD Systems Wet/dry Interface: •Occurs in area of absorber where hot flue gas is quenched •Scaling results from fluctuations in gas flow and gas distribution. Causes areas along duct walls or other internal structures to vary from wet to dry •If slurry is carried back into this area, it may

Increasing Wet FGD SO2 Removal Efficiency - power-eng.com

Oct 26, 2015· Acid gas removal efficiency (mainly SO 2) in a power plant’s limestone-based wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system absorber is governed by two processes: the absorption of SO 2 …

Power Engineering - October 2015 - amecfw.com

(FGD) units to existing plants. Amec Foster Wheeler’s Dual Flow Tray Tech-nology can provide a cost effective solution for both new and upgrades to existing wet FGD plants to achieve new these new emission standards. Acid gas removal efficiency (mainly SO 2) in a power plant’s limestone-based wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD)

Flue-Gas Desulfurization (“Scrubbers”)

stoichiometry (1 mole of CaCO3 for 2 moles of SO2, that is, 100 g of limestone per 128 g of sulfur dioxide removed from the flue gas) and is easily controlled by monitoring the pH, since it makes an alkaline solution. The fact that some significant portion of the SO2 in the liquid turns into another chemical, namely HSO3 –, makes more room for SO

Wet & Dry Scrubbers - The McIlvaine Company

Stoichiometric . Stoichiometric Ratio often referred to as the Ca/S ratio Actual moles of calcium/theoretical amount of calcium required for the moles of SO . required for the moles of SO 22 collected For wet FGD it is expressed as a ratio to the SO 2 collected. Typical values would be 1.03 to 1.05 Dry system suppliers express their usage on the

Limestone based spray dry scrubbing of SO2 - ScienceDirect

The amount of SO2 removed increased roughly four times, due to the longer gas residence time in the filter cake. ES Limestone based spray dry scrubbing of SO2 2101 Limestone versus lime Lime bused spray dry scrubbing of SO2 is a proven concept, with almost …

Circulating Dry Scrubbers: A New Wave in FGD? - Power ...

Wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) technology is mature, ... The stoichiometric molar ratio of lime feed to inlet SO 2 concentration can potentially be as low as 1.3.

Flue Gas Desulfurization Technologies for Coal-Fired Power ...

Flue Gas Desulfurization Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants Presented by Michael X. Jiang at the Coal-Tech 2000 International Conference November 13-14, 2000 Jakarta, Indonesia BR-1709 Paul S. Nolan The Babcock & Wilcox Company Barberton, Ohio, U.S.A.

Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization Technology Evaluation

wet FGD systems in the United States have used wet stack operations. NLA-DryFGD Project Number 11311-000 3 . ... The lime stoichiometric ratio is higher than the limestone stoichiometric ratio (on the same basis) to achieve comparable SO2 removals. 4. Dry FGD produces a large volume of waste, which does not have many uses due to its

Stoichiometric Combustion - Engineering ToolBox

To determine the excess air or excess fuel for a combustion system we starts with the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio. The stoichiometric ratio is the perfect ideal fuel ratio where the chemical mixing proportion is correct. When burned all fuel and air is consumed without any excess left over. Process heating equipment are rarely run that way.