ammonium perchlorate blast
Description. Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is a colorless, odorless, inorganic, crystalline compound with the molecular formula ClH 4 NO 4 and CAS number 7790-98-9. It imparts a bitter and salty taste to water and does not readily burn, but will burn if contaminated by combustible materials.
Present that day were an estimated 4,500 tons of ammonium perchlorate, a powerful oxidizer found in solid fuel rocket boosters used for NASA space shuttles. ... Instead, the first blast — the ...
Oxygen from ammonium perchlorate combines with aluminum metal to produce aluminum oxide--the white solid Al 2 O 3-- and aluminum chloride, AlCl 3, water vapor and nitrogen gas. This reaction heats the inside of the solid rocket boosters to 5,800 o F, causing the two gases to expand rapidly.
ROCKET FUEL PLANT MAY BE BUILT IN UTAH. By Robert Rice, Staff Writer. ... which manufactures the ammonium perchlorate rocket fuel, confirmed that Cedar City, as …
Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern solid-propellant rocket used in rocket vehicles. It differs from many traditional solid rocket propellants such as black powder or zinc-sulfur, not only in chemical composition and overall performance, but also by the nature of how it …
Ammonium perchlorate is an oxidizing agent and may cause rapid combustion or explosions if mixed with fuels. 2) Burning ammonium perchlorate may produce chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and oxides of
PEPCON was one of two American producers of ammonium perchlorate, a chemical found in solid fuel rocket boosters that is used for NASA Space Shuttles and military-grade weapons, according to the ...
Looking for ammonium perchlorate explosive? Find out information about ammonium perchlorate explosive. Any of several compositions consisting of ammonium perchlorate in combination with a high explosive and powdered metal; produces powerful blast Explanation of ammonium perchlorate explosive
* Ammonium Perchlorate may affect the kidneys. * Ammonium Perchlorate is a HIGHLY REACTIVE CHEMICAL and a DANGEROUS EXPLOSION HAZARD. IDENTIFICATION Ammonium Perchlorate is an odorless, white, sand-like powder. It is used in analytical chemistry and as an etching and engraving agent. It is also used as an animal fattening agent and in explosives.
Nov 05, 2012· From Rockets to Ruins. The PEPCON Ammonium Perchlorate Plant Explosion. Senior Management ViTS Meeting . November 2012 . ... • Ammonium perchlorate (AP), is mixed with finely ground aluminum and other combustible ... estimating the blast …
PEPCON produced ammonium perchlorate, which is a chemical found in solid rocket fuel. 2. Because of the Challenger explosion in January 1986, there was a large amount of ammonium …
The explosion and "fast fire" were caused from either "a spark or static electricity in the ammonium perchlorate," Neilsen said. Ammonium perchlorate is a chemical used by NASA in fuel to propel ...
The San Francisco Regional Office brought to our attention a potential problem due to the inconsistency among different authorities in the classification of ammonium perchlorate (AP) as an oxidizer or as an explosive. Since there are differences in the classification by different Federal and State ...
But, as has been stated several times above, ammonium perchlorate is an oxidant, not a fuel. A volatile substance would have a high vapor pressure, which ammonium perchlorate, a solid material, does not. So in the purest sense of the meaning of “volatile,” ammonium perchlorate is not volatile at …
Nov 10, 2008· YouTube Premium Loading... Get YouTube without the ads. Working... Skip trial 1 month free. Find out why Close. Destroyed in Seconds- Chemical Plant Explosion Discovery.
Three days after the disaster, one of these attorneys claimed, "Nothing ignites ammonium perchlorate. It does not burn. It is not flammable." Though the compound was not considered to be an extreme explosive threat before the PEPCON disaster, chemists pointed out that the attorney's grasp of chemistry must be as flimsy as his grasp of ethics.
CHEMICAL PLANT REOPENS NEAR CEDAR WITH NEW NAME. ... truckload of ammonium perchlorate produced at the facility.The chemical is considered vital to …
"In addition to rocket fuel, perchlorate is found in fireworks, airbags, matches, signal flares, some food packaging, and munitions" Not to mention fertilizer, which is the vast majority of "industrial" perchlorate exposure in the US. Rocket fuel is a pretty marginal environmental source of perchlorate, overall.
In the process, a recovered ammonium perchlorate solution is contacted with activated carbon, preferably by passage through a packed column. Contamination that modifies the ammonium perchlorate crystal habit and causes rhombic-shaped ammonium perchlorate particles is removed by activated carbon.
Ammonium perchlorate, an oxidizer, is the most prevalent form of this compound; has been widely used in solid propellants, fireworks, and flares; and is a constituent of many munition components. Manufacture of ammonium perchlorate began in the 1940s, primarily for use by the defense industry and later by the aerospace industry.
Burning Constituents for Rocket Launch – Ammonium Perchlorate The atomic structure of ammonium perchlorate and rockets, on the left is a rocket blasting off using ammonium perchlorate as fuel and on the right is a molecule of ammonium perchlorate.
However, production of ammonium perchlorate was allowed to continue at PEPCON. Though supplies grew, there was no government plan for PEPCON regarding where to ship the product, and no required storage procedure nor proper storage facilities for such large quantities (approximately 4,500 tons) of …
Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is produced by reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid. This process is the main outlet for the industrial production of perchloric acid. The salt also can be produced by salt metathesis reaction of ammonium salts with sodium perchlorate.
Barcz and Trzcinski reviewed some aspects of thermobaric and enhanced blast explosives . Therein, the thermobaric and enhanced fuel explosives are defined and categorized as liquid and solid mixtures, and advanced compositions including layer charges. ... 0–9% of Mg and 0–20% of AP (ammonium perchlorate). In the study 14 experimental TBE ...
Rocket Fuel Plant Explosion- Nevada. A rocket fuel (ammonium perchlorate) plant exploded in Nevada in May 1988. A consortium of insurance companies sued the rocket fuel plant and others to recover $77 million in damages to surrounding homes by the explosion shock wave. Dr. Fox was a member of the expert team determining the events leading up to ...
May 06, 2008· The other American manufacturer, Kerr-McGee, was located less than five miles away from the PEPCON plant and well with-in the area that suffered blast damage. A little background information: After the Challenger Space Shuttle disaster in January, 1986, the United States government continued their contract with PEPCON for ammonium perchlorate.
Nov 05, 2012· From Rockets to Ruins. The PEPCON Ammonium Perchlorate Plant Explosion. May 4, 1988, Clark County, NV: What began as a normal repair procedure at the Pacific Engineering Production Company of Nevada (PEPCON), a chemical plant specializing in the manufacture of a major component in solid propellant, ended in the worst way imaginable.
Aug 12, 2015· We don't have all the details yet, but almost certainly not. The biggest accidental explosion was the one in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1917 when an ammunition ship exploded, causing 1800 deaths, 9000 injuries and 8 square miles of the city were lai...
The other producer, Kerr-McGee, was located less than 1.5 mi (2.4 km) away from the PEPCON facility, within the area that suffered some blast damage. In addition to ammonium perchlorate, the plant produced other perchlorate chemicals including sodium perchlorate.
Jul 09, 2005· It would be well to remember however that Ammonium perchlorate in particle size below 15 micron is considered to be an explosive material under 18 U.S.C. Chapter 40. And that it can be sensitized with reducing agents. PATR 2700 provides the following detonation velocities for Ammonium perchlorate: (Original reference: RH.
blast or post-blast. Pre-blast analysis involves the identification of an unexploded material that ... c. Perchlorate / Chlorate / Nitrate . d. Other 5. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) ... material, inorganic oxidizing agents such as ammonium and sodium salts, and in . some instances sulfur, nitrocellulose, salts or microballoons.
Jan 10, 2018· Ammonium perchlorate: Approximately 4,000 tons of an oxidizer used in solid fuel rocket boosters, ammonium perchlorate, were stored at the facility after PEPCON was allowed to continue to produce the material without any regulations for storage or shipping. Used in military weapons and the Space Shuttle, the amounts in storage grew as the United States suspended the Space …
AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE is a strong oxidizing agent. Decomposes at 130°C and explodes at 380°C [Mellor 2 Supp. 1:608 1956]. Explosions have occurred in propellant formulations containing ammonium perchlorate to which ferrocene has been added as a burning rate catalyst.
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